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Symbol Reference

This quick reference contains the XML entities and hexadecimal codes for some of the most common mathematical symbols. It is not designed to be a comprehensive reference, but rather an intuitive resource for MathML authors. That said, feel free to let us know if you think these tables are missing any characters.

To display these symbols outside of MathJax, remember that you need to render them with a math-friendly font like the STIX Fonts. For a more detailed discussion about embedding special characters in MathML, please visit the W3C’s XML Entity Definitions for Characters.

Algebra

Symbol Entity Hex Description
− − Subtraction
× × × Multiplication
÷ ÷ ÷ Division
≠ ≠ Not equal
≈ ≈ Approximately equal
< &lt; &#x003C; Less than
&le; &#x2264; Less than or equal
> &gt; &#x003E; Greater than
&ge; &#x2265; Greater than or equal
± &plusmn; &#x00B1; Plus or minus
&prop; &#x221D; Proportional
&sum; &#x2211; Summation
&prod; &#x220F; Product
&lfloor; &#x230A; Left floor
&rfloor; &#x230B; Right floor
&lceil; &#x2308; Left ceiling
&rceil; &#x2309; Right ceiling

The &sdot; entity can be used as an alternative to the &times; operator. And, of course, an ASCII slash can be used in place of &divide;.

Calculus

Symbol Entity Hex Description
&prime; &#x2032; Prime (1st derivative)
&Prime; &#x2033; Double prime (2nd derivative)
&tprime; &#x2034; Triple prime (3nd derivative)
&qprime; &#x2057; Quadruple prime (4th derivative)
&part; &#x2202; Partial Differential
Δ &Delta; &#x0394; Increment
&Del; &#x2207; Gradient
&int; &#x222B; Integral
&Int; &#x222C; Double integral
&tint; &#x222D; Triple integral
&qint; &#x2A0C; Quadruple integral
&conint; &#x222E; Contour integral
&cwconint; &#x2232; Clockwise contour integral
&awconint; &#x2233; Anticlockwise contour integral
&Conint; &#x222F; Surface integral
&Cconint; &#x2230; Volume integral
&infin; &#x221E; Infinity

The &prime; and &Prime; symbols are also the preferred way to mark up feet/inch and minutes/seconds measurements.

Ellipses

Symbol Entity Hex Description
&hellip; &#x2026; Horizontal ellipsis
&vellip; &#x22EE; Vertical ellipsis
&ctdot; &#x22EF; Midline horizontal ellipsis
&utdot; &#x22F0; Up right diagonal ellipsis
&dtdot; &#x22F1; Down right diagonal ellipsis

Geometry

Symbol Entity Hex Description
° &deg; &#x00B0; Degrees
&ang; &#x2220; Angle
&angmsd; &#x2221; Measured angle
&angrt; &#x221F; Right angle
&vangrt; &#x299C; Right angle with square
&lrtri; &#x22BF; Right triangle
&cir; &#x25CB; Circle
&xutri; &#x25B3; Triangle
&squ; &#x25A1; Square
&fltns; &#x25B1; Parallelogram
&spar; &#x2225; Parallel
&npar; &#x2226; Not parallel
&perp; &#x22A5; Perpendicular
&cong; &#x2245; Congruent
&rarr; &#x2192; Ray (used with <mover>)
&harr; &#x2194; Line (used with <mover>)
- (n/a) &#x002D; Line Segment (used with <mover>)

You may also find other useful shapes in the Geometric Shapes Block.

Greek Letters

Letter Entities Hex Codes
Α α &Alpha; &alpha; &#x0391; &#x03B1;
Β β &Beta; &beta; &#x0392; &#x03B2;
Γ γ &Gamma; &gamma; &#x0393; &#x03B3;
Δ δ &Delta; &delta; &#x0394; &#x03B4;
Ε ε &Epsilon; &epsilon; &#x0395; &#x03B5;
Ζ ζ &Zeta; &zeta; &#x0396; &#x03B6;
Η η &Eta; &eta; &#x0397; &#x03B7;
Θ θ &Theta; &theta; &#x0398; &#x03B8;
Ι ι &Iota; &iota; &#x0399; &#x03B9;
Κ κ &Kappa; &kappa; &#x039A; &#x03BA;
Λ λ &Lambda; &lambda; &#x039B; &#x03BB;
Μ μ &Mu; &mu; &#x039C; &#x03BC;
Ν ν &Nu; &nu; &#x039D; &#x03BD;
Ξ ξ &Xi; &xi; &#x039E; &#x03BE;
Ο ο &Omicron; &omicron; &#x039F; &#x03BF;
Π π &Pi; &pi; &#x03A0; &#x03C0;
Ρ ρ &Rho; &rho; &#x03A1; &#x03C1;
Σ σ &Sigma; &sigma; &#x03A3; &#x03C3;
Τ τ &Tau; &tau; &#x03A4; &#x03C4;
Υ υ &Upsilon; &upsilon; &#x03A5; &#x03C5;
Φ φ &Phi; &phi; &#x03A6; &#x03C6;
Χ χ &Chi; &chi; &#x03A7; &#x03C7;
Ψ ψ &Psi; &psi; &#x03A8; &#x03C8;
Ω ω &Omega; &omega; &#x03A9; &#x03C9;

As you can see, Greek letter entities follow a very straightforward naming convention. It’s simply their letter name spelled out, using an initial capital for capital letters and lowercase for minuscules.

Invisible Operators

Entity Short Entity Hex Description
&ApplyFunction; &af; &#x2061; Function application
&InvisibleTimes; &it; &#x2062; Invisible multiplication
&InvisibleComma; &ic; &#x2063; Invisible separator
(n/a) (n/a) &#x2064; Invisible addition

Invisible operators are used to explicitly clarify ambiguous expressions like x(y). Please see the Invisible Operators section for details.

Logic

Symbol Entity Hex Description
¬ &not; &#x00AC; Negation
&and; &#x2227; Logical conjunction
&or; &#x2228; Logical disjunction
&veebar; &#x22BB; Exclusive disjunction
&forall; &#x2200; Universal quantification
&exist; &#x2203; Existential quantification
&rArr; &#x21D2; Material implication
&hArr; &#x21D4; Material equivalence
&EmptySmallSquare; &#x25FB; Necessarily
&loz; &#x25CA; Possibly
&vdash; &#x22A2; Provable
&vDash; &#x22A8; Entails
&there4; &#x2234; Therefore

The character is also used as a common alternative for exclusive disjunction. It can be accessed through the &oplus; entity or the &#x2295; hexadecimal reference.

Set Theory

Symbol Entity Hex Description
&empty; &#x2205; Empty Set
&isin; &#x2208; Member of set
&notin; &#x2209; Not a member of set
&sube; &#x2286; Subset
&nsube; &#x2288; Not a subset
&sub; &#x2282; Strict subset
&nsub; &#x2284; Not a strict subset
&supe; &#x2287; Superset
&nsupe; &#x2289; Not a superset
&sup; &#x2283; Strict superset
&nsup; &#x2285; Not a strict superset
&cap; &#x2229; Intersection
&cup; &#x222A; Union
&ssetmn; &#x2216; Complement

Note that some authors prefer to use the and symbols for strict subsets and supersets. These are available through the &subne; and &supne; entities or the &#x228A; and &#x228B; hexadecimal codes.

Vectors & Functions

Symbol Entity Hex Description
&sdot; &#x22C5; Dot product
&Cross; &#x2A2F; Cross product
&Vert; &#x2016; Norm (magnitude) bars
&lang; &#x27E8; Left angle bracket
&rang; &#x27E9; Right angle bracket
&compfn; &#x2218; Function composition
&rarr; &#x2192; General function mapping
&mapsto; &#x21A6; Concrete function mapping
ı &imath; &#x0131; Dotless i
ȷ &jmath; &#x0237; Dotless j

Dotless i’s and j’s are typically combined with a caret (^) to mark up i‑hat and j‑hat vectors, as described in Dotless Letters.

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